The css module

This modules provides StyleSheet, Style, Element and a some utility functions that help write css properties.

StyleSheet represents a list of rules and conditions (nested @-rules) from a CSS file or string source. (The CSS format is parsed by the Css language definition in parce.lang.css and transformed to a CSS structure by the CssTransform transform class.)

Style represents a resulting list of rules, sorted on specificity, so that by selecting rules the properties that apply in a certain situation can be determined and read.

Element and AbstractElement describe elements in a HTML or XML document, and can be used to select matching rules in a stylesheet. Element provides a list-based helper, and AbstractElement can be inherited from to wrap any tree structure to use with stylesheet rule selectors.

This module is used by the theme module to provide syntax highlighting themes based on CSS files.

Workflow:

  1. Instantiate a StyleSheet from a file or other source. If needed, combine multiple StyleSheets using the + operator.

  2. Filter conditions out using filter_conditions(), like media, supports or document.

  3. Get a Style object through the style property of the StyleSheet.

  4. Use a select method to select rules based on their selectors.

  5. Use properties() to combine the properties of the selected rules to get a dictionary of the CSS properties that apply.

Example:

>>> from parce.css import Element, StyleSheet
>>> style = StyleSheet.from_file("parce/themes/default.css").style
>>> e = Element(class_="comment", parent=Element(class_="parce"))
>>> style.select_element(e).properties()
{'color': [<Value text='dimgray', color=Color(r=105, g=105, b=105, a=1.0)>],
'font-family': [<Value text='serif'>], 'font-style': [<Value text='italic'>]}
class Atrule(keyword, contents, block)

Bases: tuple

An at-rule. For nested atrules the nested stylesheet is in a list block, for other at-rules that end with a rule with properties, the properties dict is in block; when there is no block, block is None.

block

The block between {}.

contents

The tokens between de keyword and the block.

keyword

The identifier directly after the @.

class Rule(prelude, properties)

Bases: tuple

A normal rule

prelude

The list of selector lists, see Css.prelude().

properties

The dictionary of Css properties.

class Condition(keyword, node, style)

Bases: tuple

A conditional at-rule

keyword

The keyword after the @.

node

The contents after the keyword and before the block, or the query after the filename of an @import rule.

style

The Style representing the rules in the block.

class Color(r, g, b, a)

Bases: tuple

A named tuple holding the (r, g, b, a) value of a color.

a

The opacity, float in the range 0..1.

b

The blue value, integer in the range 0..255.

g

The green value, integer in the range 0..255.

r

The red value, integer in the range 0..255.

style_query(func)[source]

Make a generator method return a new Style/StyleSheet/Atrules object.

class StyleSheet(rules=None, filename='')[source]

Bases: object

Represents a list of style rules and conditions.

Normal CSS rules are translated into a Rule tuple, nested rules such as @media, @document and @supports are translated into Condition tuples, and other @-rules are put in Atrule tuples.

A Rule consists of selectors and properties. The selectors are the tokens in a rule before the {. The properties is a dict mapping css property names to the list of tokens representing their value.

A Condition consists of keyword, node and style; the node is Css.atrule context containing all text from the @ upto the opening {. The style is another StyleSheet object representing the nested style sheet.

An Atrule tuple consists of keyword and node, where the node is the Css.atrule context.

You can combine stylesheets from different files or sources using the + operator.

The style property returns the Style object representing all combined rules, and allowing further queries. The at property returns an Atrules instance containing the atrules that do not belong to the nested at-rules.

filename = ''

our filename, if we were loaded from a file

classmethod load_from_data(data)[source]

Return a Css.root tree from data, handling the encoding.

static load_from_text(text)[source]

Return a CSS structure from text.

classmethod load_from_file(filename)[source]

Return a CSS structure from filename, handling the encoding.

classmethod from_file(filename, path=None, allow_import=True)[source]

Return a new StyleSheet adding Rules and Conditions from a local filename.

The path argument is currently unused. If allow_import is False, the @import atrule is ignored.

classmethod from_text(text, filename='', path=None, allow_import=True)[source]

Return a new StyleSheet adding Rules and Conditions from a string.

The filename argument is used to handle @import rules correctly. The path argument is currently unused. If allow_import is False, the @import atrule is ignored.

classmethod from_data(data, filename='', path=None, allow_import=True)[source]

Return a new StyleSheet adding Rules and Conditions from a bytes string.

The filename argument is used to handle @import rules correctly. The path argument is currently unused. If allow_import is False, the @import atrule is ignored.

classmethod from_css(css, filename='', path=None, allow_import=True)[source]

Return a new StyleSheet adding Rules and Conditions from a CSS structure.

The filename argument is used to handle @import rules correctly. The path argument is currently unused. If allow_import is False, the @import atrule is ignored.

filter_conditions(keyword, predicate)[source]

Return a new StyleSheet object where conditions are filtered out.

For Condition instances with the specified keyword, the predicate is called with the contents of the rule (the full Atrule) of each Condition, and if the return value doesn’t evaluate to True, the Condition is removed from the resulting set. Conditions with other keywords are kept.

Currently (CSS3), Conditions have the “media”, “supports” or “document” keyword. @import rules that have a media query after the filename are also stored as a Condition.

For example, this is a crude way to only get the @media rules for “screen”:

filter_conditions("media", lambda rule: "screen" in rule.contents)

Of course, a better parser for @media expressions could be written :-)

filenames()[source]

Return a list of filenames the currently selected rules depend on.

Our own filename will be the first in the list, and filenames of @import-ed rules that are still selected are appended to the list.

property style

Return a Style object with the remaining rules.

All rules that still are behind a condition, are let through. The rules are sorted on specificity.

property at

Return an Atrules object containing the remaining at-rules.

All rules that still are behind a condition, are let through.

class Style(rules)[source]

Bases: object

Represents the list of rules created by the StyleSheet object.

All select-methods/properties return a new Style object with the narrowed-down selection of rules.

Use properties() to get the dictionary of combined properties that apply to the selected rules.

select_element(element)[source]

Select the rules that match with Element.

select_lxml_element(element)[source]

Select the rules that match with lxml.etree.Element.

properties()[source]

Return the combined properties of the current set of rules. (Endpoint.)

Returns a dictionary with the properties. The value of each property is a list of Value instances.

class Atrules(rules)[source]

Bases: object

Represents the @rules that are not nested, e.g. @page etc.

select(*keywords)[source]
class AbstractElement[source]

Bases: object

Base implementation for an Element object that Style uses for matching.

You may reimplement this to wrap any tree structure you want to use with the css module. You should then implement:

  • __init__()

  • get_name()

  • get_parent()

  • get_attributes()

  • get_pseudo_classes() (if needed)

  • get_pseudo_elements() (if needed)

  • children()

  • get_child_count()

  • previous_siblings()

  • next_siblings()

If you wrap other objects, be sure to reimplement __eq__ and __ne__, to compare those objects and not the wrappers, which may be recreated each time.

get_name()[source]

Implement to return the element’s name.

get_parent()[source]

Implement to return the parent Element or None.

get_attributes()[source]

Implement to return a dictionary of attributes, keys and values are str.

get_pseudo_classes()[source]

Implement to return a list of pseudo classes.

get_pseudo_elements()[source]

Implement to return a list of pseudo elements.

children()[source]

Implement to yield our children.

get_child_count()[source]

Implement to return the number of children.

previous_siblings()[source]

Implement to yield our previous siblings in backward order.

next_siblings()[source]

Implement to yield our next siblings in forward order.

get_classes()[source]

Return a tuple of classes, by default from the ‘class’ attribute.

The returned tuple may be empty, when there are no class names.

get_id()[source]

Return the id or None, by default read from the ‘id’ attribute.

next_sibling()[source]

Return the next sibling.

previous_sibling()[source]

Return the previous sibling.

is_first_child()[source]

Return True if we are the first child.

is_last_child()[source]

Return True if we are the last child.

is_only_child()[source]

Return True if we are the only child.

is_first_of_type()[source]

Return True if we are the first of our type.

is_last_of_type()[source]

Return True if we are the last of our type.

is_empty()[source]

Return True if we have no child elements.

match(prelude)[source]

Match with a compound selector expression (prelude part of Rule).

match_selectors(selectors)[source]

Match with a list of selectors with operators in between.

match_selector(selector)[source]

Match with a single CSS selector dictionary.

Returns True if the element matches with the selector.

class Element(name='', parent=None, pseudo_classes=None, pseudo_elements=None, **attrs)[source]

Bases: parce.css.AbstractElement, list

Mimic an Element CSS selector rules are matched with.

Use “class_” when specifying the class with a keyword argument. You can also manipulate the attributes after instantiating.

get_name()[source]

Implemented to return the element’s name.

get_parent()[source]

Implemented to return the parent Element or None.

get_attributes()[source]

Implemented to return a dictionary of attributes.

get_pseudo_classes()[source]

Implemented to return a list of pseudo classes.

get_pseudo_elements()[source]

Implemented to return a list of pseudo elements.

children()[source]

Implemented to yield our children.

get_child_count()[source]

Implemented to return the number of children.

previous_siblings()[source]

Yield our previous siblings in backward order.

next_siblings()[source]

Yield our next siblings in forward order.

class LxmlElement(element)[source]

Bases: parce.css.AbstractElement

An Element wrapping an element from a lxml.etree tree.

get_name()[source]

Return the element’s name.

get_parent()[source]

Return the parent Element or None.

get_attributes()[source]

Return a dictionary of attributes, keys and values are str.

get_pseudo_classes()[source]

Implement to return a list of pseudo classes.

get_pseudo_elements()[source]

Implement to return a list of pseudo elements.

children()[source]

Yield our children.

get_child_count()[source]

Return the number of children.

previous_siblings()[source]

Yield our previous siblings in backward order.

next_siblings()[source]

Yield our next siblings in forward order.

class CssTransform[source]

Bases: parce.transform.Transform

Transform a CSS stylesheet into a simpler data structure.

The data structure created by this Transform only contains plain Python strings, lists, (named) tuples, dictionaries and Value objects. Value represents any item from a property value list. Most notably, a CSS color (hexadecimal, named or via the CSS rgb()/rgba() functions) is converted to a named Color four-tuple.

A tree created by the Css.root lexicon becomes a list of tuples that are either a Rule or an Atrule named tuple.

An Atrule named tuple corresponds to an @-rule and consists of three items, the keyword which contains the name, the contents, which contains all items after the name, and the block which contains the part between { and }.

There are three at-rule types:

  1. Nested at-rule: the keyword is either "media", "supports" or "document", the contents contains the query strings and Value instances; the block contains the list of nested Rule/Atrule tuples.

  2. At-rules with a properties block, like @page:left { ... }: the keyword can be anything, the block is a dictionary of properties like the properties dictionary of a normal Rule (see below). The contents contains the stuff between the block and the initial keyword.

  3. At-rules without a block; like @import url("filename.css");, the block is None for these at-rules.

A Rule named tuple corresponds to a normal CSS rule and consists of two items, the prelude, which contains the selectors, and the properties dictionary.

The prelude is a list of selector groups. Each selector group is also a list, containing at least one selector dictionary and optionally operator strings and more selector dictionaries. See the prelude() method.

The properties is a dictionary mapping property names to lists of Value instances. A Value can express any CSS property value, like a quoted string, unquoted name, number with or without unit, url, etc. It also recognizes named, rgb/rgba and hexadecimal colors, which can be found as a Color tuple in the Value.color attribute. It does not yet parse calc() function calls.

For example:

>>> from parce import root
>>> from parce.transform import transform_tree
>>> from parce.lang.css import Css
>>> from parce.css import CssTransform
>>> transform_tree(root(Css.root, 'h1 { color: red; }'), CssTransform())
[Rule(prelude=[[{'element_selector': ['h1']}]], properties={'color':
[<Value text='red', color=Color(r=255, g=0, b=0, a=1.0)>]})]
root(items)[source]

Return a list of Rule or Atrule tuples.

prelude(items)[source]

Return a Css prelude.

A prelude is a list of selector lists. A Css prelude that contains a comma has more than one selector lists.

A selector list is a list of selector dictionaries with possible combinator operators in between. The operators can be: " " (space), ">", "~", "+", or "||".

Every selector is a dictionary, and inbetween are operator strings. A comma in the selector causes the prelude to contain more than one list. Every selector list consists of selector dicts with an operator or whitespace in between.

selector(items)[source]

Return a dictionary object.

The possible keys are: “element_selector”, “id_selector”, “class_selector”, “pseudo_class”, “pseudo_element”, “attribute_selector”.

If present, the value is a list of objects created by that context. Most objects are simple strings, but for pseudo_class it is a (name, selector_list) tuple, and for attribute_selector it is a four-tuple of the contents between the [ and ].

“*” is ignored, ‘|’ is not yet handled.

selector_list(items)[source]

Stuff inside :not(), :is(), etc.

rule(items)[source]

A Css rule, between { … }.

inline(items)[source]

Return a dictionary of the property values.

declaration(items)[source]

Return a two-tuple(property, value).

The value is a list of Value instances from common().

unit(items)[source]

Return the name of the unit in itens.

element_selector(items)[source]

Return the name of the element_selector.

property(items)[source]

Return the name of the property.

attribute(items)[source]

Return the name of the attribute.

id_selector(items)[source]

Return the name of the id_selector.

class_selector(items)[source]

Return the name of the class_selector.

attribute_selector(items)[source]

Return a four-tuple representing the contents between [ and ].

The tuple: (attribute, operator, value, flag).

pseudo_class(items)[source]

Return a tuple(name, selector_list).

The name is the name of the pseudo class, the selector_list is a list of selectors like the prelude of a rule. For pseudo classes without arguments, the selector_list is None.

pseudo_element(items)[source]

Return the name of the pseudo element.

atrule(items)[source]

Return a Atrule named tuple.

atrule_nested(items)[source]

Return a two-tuple: the stuff before the nested block and the nested block.

atrule_keyword(items)[source]

Return the name of the atrule keyword.

atrule_block(items)[source]

Return the properties dict in an atrule block.

atrule_nested_block(items)[source]

Return a list of Rule or Atrule tuples.

ident_token(items)[source]

Return the ident_token.

identifier(items)[source]

Return a Value.

For a color name, returns a Value with a color, otherwise a Value with the text.

If the identifier also has a function sub-context, a Value representing a function call is returned (this is done by the get_css_function_call() function, which is capable of interpreting url, rgb and rgba function calls).

function(items)[source]

Return a list of Value instances and delimiting tokens.

url_function(items)[source]

Return a Value with the url.

dqstring(items)[source]

Return the contents of a double-quoted string.

sqstring(items)[source]

Return the contents of a single-quoted string.

comment = None
common(items)[source]

Yield any values, see Css.common().

Every item is either a Value instance or a delimiting token. If an identifier context is followed by a function context, they are combined into a Value with funcname and arguments by the get_css_function_call() method.

get_css_function_call(name, arguments)[source]

Return a Value for a CSS function call. Handles rgb/rgba.

get_number(text)[source]

Get the value of a Number.

get_escape(text)[source]

Get the value of escaped text.

get_string(items)[source]

Yield the parts of a string.

Called by sqstring() and dqstring().

get_ident_token(items)[source]

Return a two-tuple(name, action).

Combines tokens in an identifier context, (see Css.identifier_common()).

get_hex_color(text)[source]

Return a named four-tuple Color(r, g, b, a) describing color and alpha.

The text is a hexadecimal color without the hash, like “FA0042”. The r, g, b values are in the range 0..255, a in 0..1; 1.0 is fully opaque.

get_named_color(text)[source]

Return a named four-tuple Color(r, g, b, a) describing color and alpha.

The text is a CSS3 color name. The r, g, b values are in the range 0..255, a in 0..1; 1.0 is fully opaque.

get_rgba_color(func_args)[source]

Convert the arguments to a rgba(1 2 3 4) call to a Color.

get_number_value(value, maximum)[source]

Return a numeric value from the Value object.

If the value object has a percentage, apply it so 100% yields the maximum value. Otherwise, the number is constrained to be in the 0..maximum range.

class Value(text=None, number=None, unit=None, url=None, color=None, funcname=None, quoted=None, arguments=())[source]

Bases: object

Any value that can occur in a CSS property declaration.

The value of a CSS property is always a list of Value instances.

For a numerial value, the number attribute contains the numeric value, and the text attribute the textual representation as present in the CSS file. A unit (or “%”) that was specified, is in the unit attribute.

For a color value, the color is in the color attribute as a Color four-tuple. When a CSS3 named color was specified, the name of the color is in the text attribute, or when a hexadecimal color was specified, the hexadecimal notation is also in the text attribute.

For a value that can either be a quoted string or an ident_token, the value is in the text attribute. If it originally was a quoted string, the quoted attribute is set to True.

If the value represents a URL specified via the url() function, the URL is in the url attribute.

If the value represents a function call, the name of the function is in the funcname attribute, and the argument list in the arguments attribute. Except for the url(), the rgb() and rgba() functions, which are handled by the CssTransform class.

calculate_specificity(prelude)[source]

Calculate the specificity of the Css rule prelude.

Returns a three-tuple (ids, clss, elts), where ids is the number of ID selectors, clss the number of class, attribute or pseudo-class selectors, and elts the number of element or pseudo-elements.

Currently, does not handle functions like :not(), :is(), although that would not be difficult to implement.

color2hex(color)[source]

Return a hexadecimal string with ‘#’ prepended for the Color instance.

quote_if_needed(s)[source]

Double-quote the string for CSS if it is not a valid ident-token.

escape(char)[source]

Escape the specified character for CSS.